The industrial revolution

The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ generally refers to England’s economic development from 1760 to the middle of the 19th century. It is a process that is difficult to date exactly but one that rapidly transformed Britain from an agricultural to an industrial country. The Industrial Revolution involved the use of new sources of power (like coal and the steam engine) and also important technological inventions. Transportation and communication in general improved greatly in this period. Britain’s Industrial Revolution reached its climax with the Great Exhibition of 1851, which exhibited the new inventions of science and technology and all sort of objects from all over the world.

During the Industrial Revolution, power and wealth began to move from the land-owning aristocracy to factory owners and other employers based in the cities. In this period cities expanded rapidly thanks to the influx of rural farm workers who became industrial labourers. The new human masses lived in conditions of terrible poverty and overcrowding and the atmosphere was polluted by smoke from factories. The old feudal order of agrarian society was dying out to be replaced by a nation divided between rich landowners and industrialists on the one hand and the restless urban poor on the other.

da: Literary Landascapes, ed. CIDEB

QUI trovate una serie di slides interessanti sulla Rivoluzione Industriale

Il Quarto Stato di Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo

il Quarto Stato di Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo 1901

quello che c’è da sapere su Daniel Defoe e il Robinson Crusoe

Daniel Defoe c. 1660 – 24 April 1731), was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer and spy. He is most famous for his novel Robinson Crusoe, which is second only to the Bible in its number of translations. He has been seen as one of the earliest proponents of the English novel, and helped to popularise the form in Britain. Defoe wrote many political tracts and was often in trouble with the authorities, and spent a period in prison. Intellectuals and political leaders paid attention to his fresh ideas and sometimes consulted with him.

Defoe was a prolific and versatile writer, producing more than three hundred works—books, pamphlets, and journals—on diverse topics, including politics, crime, religion, marriage, psychology, and the supernatural. He was also a pioneer of business journalism and economic journalism.

Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719. The first edition credited the work’s protagonist Robinson Crusoe as its author, leading many readers to believe he was a real person and the book a travelogue of true incidents.

Epistolary, confessional, and didactic in form, the book is presented as an autobiography of the title character (whose birth name is Robinson Kreutznaer)—a castaway who spends 28 years on a remote tropical desert island near Trinidad, encountering cannibals, captives, and mutineers, before ultimately being rescued. 

Despite its simple narrative style, Robinson Crusoe was well received in the literary world and is often credited as marking the beginning of realistic fiction as a literary genre. Before the end of 1719, the book had already run through four editions, and it has gone on to become one of the most widely published books in history, spawning so many imitations, not only in literature but also in film, television and radio, that its name is used to define a genre, the Robinsonade.

Crusoe set sail from Kingston upon Hull on a sea voyage in August 1651, against the wishes of his parents, who wanted him to pursue a career in law. After tumultuous journeys and adventures, he is shipwrecked in a storm about forty miles out to sea on an island (which he calls the Island of Despair) on 30 September 1659. As for his arrival there, only he and three animals, the captain’s dog and two cats, survive the shipwreck. Overcoming his despair, he fetches arms, tools and other supplies from the ship before it breaks apart and sinks. He builds a fenced-in habitat near a cave which he excavates. By making marks in a wooden cross, he creates a calendar. By using tools salvaged from the ship, and some which he makes himself, he hunts, grows barley and rice, dries grapes to make raisins, learns to make pottery and raises goats. He also adopts a small parrot. He reads the Bible and becomes religious, thanking God for his fate in which nothing is missing but human society.

More years pass and Crusoe discovers native cannibals, who occasionally visit the island to kill and eat prisoners. He dreams of obtaining one or two servants by freeing some prisoners; when a prisoner escapes, Crusoe helps him, naming his new companion “Friday” after the day of the week he appeared. Crusoe then teaches him English and converts him to Christianity.

After 28 years, an English ship appears; mutineers have commandeered the vessel and intend to maroon their captain on the island. Crusoe and the ship’s captain strike a deal in which Crusoe helps the captain and the loyal sailors retake the ship and leave the worst mutineers on the island. Before embarking for England, Crusoe shows the mutineers how he survived on the island and states that there will be more men coming. Crusoe leaves the island 19 December 1686 and arrives in England on 11 June 1687. He learns that his family believed him dead; as a result, he was left nothing in his father’s will. Crusoe departs for Lisbon to reclaim the profits of his estate in Brazil, which has granted him much wealth. In conclusion, he transports his wealth overland to England from Portugal to avoid traveling by sea. Friday accompanies him and, en route, they endure one last adventure together as they fight off famished wolves while crossing the Pyrenees.

tratto e riassunto da Wikipedia

buona fortuna!

Quest’anno è andata così, lascio le mie classi perchè sono così stanca che non potrei dare molto agli studenti e tutti loro invece hanno bisogno di persone che li sappiano condurre su quel percorso difficile che è composto dalle relazioni scolastiche.
Buona fortuna ragazzi, non buttate nell’immondizia l’opportunità che vi da la scuola e i vostri (odiatissimi) professori!

fortuna

popolazione, città, ecc.. classi 2A e 2B

Ecco il file con le pagine in cui trovate qualche importante definizione. Lo so, è al contrario, ma voi che siete più bravi di me troverete il sistema per girarlo 🙂

Per tutto il resto di cui abbiamo parlato in classe (Lucca romana, evoluzione delle mura in struttura, materiali, ampiezza, sistema difensivo delle porte di accesso, ecc…) ci sono i vostri appunti!

Considerate che questi argomenti saranno parte della prossima verifica che penso proprio faremo il 2 dicembre, preparatevi!

popolazione